Who let the hyaenas out? Do we mistake hyaena dens for hominin occupation sites?

Since the first discovery of Pleistocene mammal fauna with lithic tools, the role of carnivores as accumulators at archaeological sites, both modern and during the ice-age, has been well established. The analysis and identification of specific types of carnivore bone surface modification and accumulation patterns during the 1960-1980s advanced our knowledge and understanding of site…

The oldest handaxe industry in northwest Europe?

The earliest occupation of Europe is generally seen as having had two main phases. The first one relates to sites with simple core and flake assemblages (Mode 1) with no handaxes or other bifacial technologies (e.g. Pakefield, Orce, Pirro-Nord). The second phase relates to the spread of the Acheulean handaxe technology, seen as having reached…